A well that is not in use because it was drilled as a dry hole or has ceased to produce or for some other reason cannot be operated.
Sometimes referred to as MARKETERS. An independent corporation that buys natural gas from many producers, re-sells it to buyers, and obtains the necessary pipeline transportation capacity and removal/export permits and licenses. Aggregators usually sell to buyers that individually require large amounts of natural gas, such as local distribution companies and large industrial customers.
Wells generally drilled in the vicinity of a discovery or wildcat well for the purpose of evaluating the extent and the importance of the find.
Gas that is produced from the same reservoir in association with crude oil, either as free gas or in solution.
Petroleum industry standard barrel. Equals 0.159 m3.
Petroleum that exists in the semi-solid or solid phase in natural deposits.
An uncontrolled flow of gas, oil or other liquids from a well.
Blowout Preventer (BOP)
Equipment that is installed at the wellhead to control pressures and fluids during drilling, completion, workovers and other remedial operations.
British Thermal Unit (Btu)
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2F
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
An inert non-toxic gas produced from decaying materials, respiration of plant and animal life, and combustion of organic matter, including fossil fuels. For many years, this gas had little commercial value except for the production of dry ice but, in recent years, it has become a valuable resource employed in tertiary oil recovery projects.
Sediment formed from the hard parts of marine organisms mainly consisting of calcite, aragonite and dolomite. Rocks formed from such sediments are important oil and gas reservoirs throughout the world.
A type of pipe that is used for encasing a smaller diameter pipe for installation in a well. Casing is used to send off fluids from the hole or keep a hole from caving in.
Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
Natural gas generated and trapped in coal seams.
A continuous, jointless hollow steel cylinder that is stored on a reel and can be uncoiled or coiled repeatedly as required; coiled tubing is increasingly being used in well completion and servicing instead of traditional tubing, which is made up of joined sections of pipe.
A well where operations have advanced to a stage where it is ready to produce oil or gas.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Natural gas that has been highly compressed and is stored in high-pressure surface containers. CNG is used as a transportation fuel for automobiles, trucks and buses.
A facility in which the pressure of natural gas is raised to facilitate its transmission through pipelines.
Hydrocarbon liquids of high API gravity, usually produced in association with natural gas and which are liquid at normal pressure and temperature.
Conventional Crude Oil
Petroleum found in liquid form either flowing naturally from its reservoir or capable of being pumped.
A continuous cylinder of rock, usually from five to 10 centimeters in diameter, cut from the bottom of a well bore. Cores are cut during the drilling of a well and are used in the study of underground formations.
Balance of powers between boards of directors, senior management, shareholders and stakeholders of companies.
Corporate Responsibility or CR
Defined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development as the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large.
Mineral rights owned by the federal or provincial governments in Canada.
The volume of gas that fills one cubic foot of space under standard temperature and pressure conditions. Standard pressure is 14.73 psi and standard temperature is 60F.
Taking out of use, ready for dismantling/removal.
Deep Basin Gas
Natural gas that is found at depths greater than the average for a particular area.
The amount of natural gas a well, field, pool, gathering, transmission or distribution system can supply in a given period of time.
The weight of crude oil, indicating the proportion of large, carbon-rich molecules, generally measured in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) or degrees on the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity scale; in Western Canada, oil up to 900 kg/m3 is considered light to medium crude – oil above this density is deemed as heavy oil or bitumen.
A well generally drilled in or adjacent to a proven part of a pool to optimize petroleum production.
Directional (deviated) Well
A well drilled at an angle from the vertical by using a slanted drilling rig or by deflecting the drill bit. Directional wells can be used to drill multiple wells from a common drilling pad or to reach a subsurface location beneath land where drilling cannot be done.
An exploratory well that results in the discovery of a new gas or oilfield or pool.
A term used most commonly in the petroleum industry to describe post production processes (e.g. refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry).
The heavy steel pipe used to rotate the drill bit and circulate drilling mud. Drill pipe is generally in sections, approximately 9 meters long, are screwed together to form a continuous pipe and extend from the drilling rig to the drilling bit at the bottom of the hole. Rotation of the drill pipe and bit causes the bit to bore through the rock.
The column or "string" made up of connected drill pipe. The drill string carries the mud down to, and rotates, the drill bit.
Fluid circulated down the drill pipe and up the annulus during drilling operations to remove cuttings, cool and lubricate the bit and maintain a desired pressure in the well.
A method of sampling fluid from a formation by isolating an interval in the wellbore, using a tool attached to the drill string (or “drill stem”). The sample is used to assess the type and volume of fluids in the formation as well as their pressure and rate of flow.
Natural gas that does not contain dissolved liquid hydrocarbons.
An unsuccessful well, a well not capable of producing commercial quantities of oil or gas.
A person or company who actually consumes natural gas (as opposed to one who sells or resells it).
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
Any method that increases oil production by using techniques or materials that are not part of normal pressure maintenance or water flooding operations. Examples include oil recovered through the injection of gas or miscible fluids.
Systematic, documented verification process of objectively obtaining and evaluating audit evidence to determine whether specified environmental activities, events, conditions, management systems or information about these matters conform with audit criteria.
Environmental Impact Assessment
A set of activities designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to project or program decision-making.
Those reserves recoverable under current technology and present and anticipated economic conditions. Also a term commonly used in reference to total proved reserves plus half probable reserves.
The act of searching for potential sub-surface reservoirs of gas or oil. Methods include the use of magnetometers, gravity meters, seismic exploration, surface mapping, and the drilling of exploratory test wells (wildcats).
A well drilled either in search of new and yet undiscovered accumulations of oil and gas, or in an attempt to significantly extend the limits of a known reservoir.
An arrangement whereby the owner of a lease assigns all or some portion of the lease or licenses to another company for undertaking exploration or development activity.
The geographical area encompassing a group of one or more underground hydrocarbon pools that share the same or related infrastructure.
The pressure of the natural gas as it is found in the underground formations from which it is produced.
Any object left in the wellbore during drilling or workover operations that must be recovered or drilled around before work can proceed.
A designated mapable sub-surface layer that is composed of substantially the same kind of rock or rock types.
Fracturing (or fracing)
A process of opening up "channels" in an underground hydrocarbon reservoir by pumping special fluids down the well under high pressure. Fracturing causes the formation to crack open, creating passages for the reservoir fluids to more easily flow into the wellbore.
Market trading in contracts to buy and sell a particular commodity at a fixed price on a certain date.
Free gas on top of the oil zone in an underground reservoir.
Gas in Place (GIP)
The volume of gas in a reservoir at any given time, calculated at standard temperature and pressure conditions, that includes both recoverable and non-recoverable gas.
The term "gas pool" is generally synonymous with the term "gas reservoir".
Gas Processing Plant
A facility which performs one of the following: removing water or moisture from the gas stream (i.e. dehydration), removing liquefiable hydrocarbons from wet gas or casinghead gas (i.e. gas processing) removing undesirable gaseous and particulate elements from natural gas (i.e. gas treatment).
Rock that forms a trap for the accumulation of natural gas and associated liquids.
A system of pipelines, compressor stations and any other related facilities that gather natural gas from a supply region and transports it to the major transmission systems. Generally, pipelines in gathering systems are smaller in diameter and operate at lower pressures (field-gathering systems), although some gathering systems (e.g. the NOVA system in Alberta) also have lines that are comparable to those found in transmission systems.
Stratigraphic geologists are trained in the study of the Earth’s crust. Petroleum geologists search for traps (structural or stratigraphic) favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons and determine favorable locations for drilling.
The accurate measurement and recording of certain physical quantities of the Earth’s crust geophysical methods (e.g. seismic) to locate probable reservoir structures capable of producing commercial quantities of natural gas and/or crude oil.
The science that deals with the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods and relations between the physical features of the Earth and forces that produce them; geophysics includes the study of seismology and magnetism.
Strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with 10 universally accepted principles in the areas of environmental protection, human rights, labor and anti-corruption.
Global Reporting Initiative
A multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable sustainability reporting guidelines.
A dense, viscous oil with a high proportion of bitumen, which is difficult to extract with conventional techniques and is more costly to refine.
Drilling a well that deviates from the vertical and travels horizontally through a prospective reservoir.
An organic chemical compound of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are a large class of liquid, solid or gaseous organic compounds that are the basis of almost all petroleum products.
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
A naturally occurring, highly toxic gas with the odor of rotten eggs, commonly found in association with natural gas.
Additional wells drilled between established producing wells on a lease in order to increase production from the reservoir.
A well employed for injecting air, steam or fluids into an underground formation.
In its original place or position. In-situ recovery refers to various methods used to recover deeply buried bitumen deposits, including steam injection, solvent injection and firefloods.
The Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in Kyoto on December 11, 1997. It contains quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emission limitation and reduction commitments, expressed in CO2 equivalent, for signatory countries.
An employee of an oil company whose primary duties are formulating and carrying out exploration strategies and managing an oil company’s relations with its landowners and partners, including securing and administering oil and gas leases and other agreements.
A formal agreement between two or more parties where the owner of the land grants another party the right to drill and produce petroleum substances in exchange for payment.
Light Crude Oil
Liquid petroleum characterized by low density that flows freely at room temperature.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Natural gas that has been supercooled to about 160 C for storage as a liquid. LNG occupies 1/640th of its original volume and is, therefore, easier to transport if pipelines cannot be used.
Injuries that result in workers being unable to report to their next work shift.
Medium Crude Oil
Liquid petroleum with a density between that of light and heavy crude oil.
Activity involving the processing, storage and transportation sectors of the petroleum industry.
Represents the legal rights to explore for and produce the resources below the surface. In the petroleum industry, mineral rights can also be referred to as "land."
An oil-recovery technique or process in which a fluid, capable of mixing completely with the oil it contacts, is injected into an oil reservoir to increase recovery.
Usually a colloidal suspension of clays in water along with chemical additives that is circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling.
Multi-Zone Well Completion
Completion of a well such that production is obtained from several different formations.
National Energy Board (NEB)
A federal regulatory agency in Canada that sets tolls and tariffs for oil and gas pipelines under federal jurisdiction; authorizes oil, natural gas and electricity exports and certifies interprovincial and international pipelines, and designated interprovincial and international power lines.
Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
Hydrocarbon liquids obtained during natural gas production and processing; they include ethane, propane, butane and condensate.
A reservoir where only gas is found (i.e. crude oil is not present).
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
Groups with mutual interests and objectives that are non-profit and independent of government.
A deposit of sand saturated with bitumen. Canada has some of the largest oil sands deposits in the world (Athabasca tar sands).
Company appointed by the co-venturers in a license to manage the exploration for and, if successful, the production of oil/gas on behalf of the co-venturers.
The producing portion of a formation.
The capacity of a reservoir rock to transmit fluids (i.e. a measure of how easily fluids can pass through the rock).
Chemicals derived from petroleum and used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of plastics and other products, such as synthetic rubber.
A naturally occurring complex mixture composed predominantly of hydrocarbons in a gaseous, liquid or solid phase.
All parts of a physical facility through which gas is transported, including pipe, valves, and other appendages attached to the pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders, and fabricated assemblies.
A natural underground reservoir containing an accumulation of petroleum.
Volume of space within a rock that might contain hydrocarbons (like the amount of water a sponge can hold). Represents the open or void space within rock – usually expressed as a percentage of the total rock volume. Porosity measures the capacity of the rock to hold natural gas, crude oil or water.
Formed prior to the Cambrian era (older than approximately 600 million years ago).
Hydrocarbon deposits believed to exist with a reasonable certainty on the basis of geological information.
Production Carbon Intensity
The mass of carbon dioxide emissions emitted during the production of each unit of oil and gas. The greenhouse gas potentials of other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are included in the calculation.
Production Energy Intensity
Energy consumed in the production of each unit of oil and gas.
A geographical area that exploration has shown contains sedimentary rocks and structures that may be favorable for the presence of crude oil or natural gas.
Hydrocarbons in known reservoirs that can be recovered with a great degree of certainty under existing technological and economic conditions. Proved reserves represent the category of natural gas reserves that have the highest probability of being produced. Generally, these reserves have been “proved” to exist with drilling evidence. Every authority has a slightly different definition of the exact parameters which define proved reserves.
Raw Natural Gas
A mixture containing methane plus all or some of the following: ethane, propane, butane, pentanes, condensates, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, helium, hydrogen, water vapor and minor impurities. Raw natural gas is the gas found naturally in the ground prior to processing. During processing, the volume decreases as impurities and liquids are removed.
The process of converting lands disturbed by oil and gas activities to other productive land uses, involving reshaping areas to a stable configuration, establishment of drainage systems, placement of topsoil or plant growth media and revegetation through planting or seeding.
Total hydrocarbon that can be produced with current technology, including those not economical to produce at present and those not tied into existing production facilities.
A porous, permeable underground rock formation containing a discrete natural accumulation of crude oil or natural gas, confined by impermeable rock or water barriers, and separate from other reservoirs.
The share of production or revenues retained by government or freehold mineral rights holders.
A compacted sedimentary rock most commonly composed of quartz or feldspar. Sandstones are a common rock in which oil, natural gas and/or water accumulate.
Extraction of incremental crude oil, natural gas and related substances from reservoirs through pressure maintenance techniques, such as water-flooding and gas injection.
One of three basic forms of rocks (the other two being igneous and metamorphic) formed by the accumulation of sediment or organic materials. Sedimentary rocks are likely to contain hydrocarbons. Sedimentary rocks generally form from matter deposited by streams, lakes, seas or other bodies of water.
Studies done to gather and record the patterns of induced shock wave reflections from underground layers of rock. Seismic surveys are used to create detailed models of the underlying geological structure used in the exploration and development of hydrocarbons.
A rig (often truck-mounted), usually smaller than a drilling rig, that is brought in to complete a well or to perform maintenance, replace equipment or improve production.
The installation of steel pipe or casing in a wellbore. An accompanying operation is the cementing of the casing in place by surrounding it with a wall of cement extending for all or a portion of the depth of the well.
A sedimentary rock formed from the deposition of clay.
Shut-in Gas Well
A producing well that has been closed down temporarily for repair, clean out, workover, lack of market, etc.
Natural gas contaminated with chemical impurities (commonly CO2 or H2S).
A market characterized by short-term contracts for specified volumes of gas. Spot market participants may be producers, marketers, brokers, LDCs or end-users.
Spud (a well)
The first or initial act of boring of the hole in drilling of an oil or gas well.
A thermal recovery method representing improved recovery technique in which steam is injected into a reservoir to reduce the viscosity of the crude oil.
A well drilled adjacent to a proven well but located in an unproven area. May represent a well located as a "step out" from proven territory in an effort to determine the boundaries of a producing formation.
A yellow-colored, natural element commonly extracted from petroleum and used for making fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and other products.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
A highly toxic gas formed by burning hydrogen sulphide.
The first string of casing put into a well. Surface casing is cemented into bedrock and serves to shut out shallow water formations and as a foundation for well control during drilling operations.
The legal rights to work on the surface of the land.
Raw natural gas characterized by a relatively low concentration of sour compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.
Synthetic Crude Oil
A mixture of hydrocarbons, similar to crude oil, derived by upgrading bitumen extracted from oil sands.
The third major phase of crude oil recovery and that involves using more sophisticated techniques, such as steam-flooding or injection of chemicals, to increase recovery.
The process of removing the drill string from the hole to change the bit and running the drill string and new bit back into the hole.
The sector of the petroleum industry involving exploration and production.
The measure of resistance to flow or "stickiness" of a fluid.
A hole drilled or bored into the earth and usually cased with metal pipe for the production of gas or oil.
Equipment used to maintain surface control of a well.
A well drilled in an area where no oil or gas production exists nearby.
The interest in a mineral property that entitles the owner to a portion of the production from the property. A working interest may entitle the owner to royalty payments.
|API||American Petroleum Institute|
|bbls/d||Barrels per day|
|bcf||Billion cubic feet|
|boe||Barrels of oil equivalent|
|boe/d||Barrels of oil equivalent per day|
|CAA||Commercial Agreement Area|
|CAGR||Compound Annual Growth Rate|
|CAPP||Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers|
|CO2E||Carbon dioxide equivalent|
|DBRS||Dominion Bond Rating Service|
|EBITDAX||Earnings before interest, preferred security charges, income taxes, depreciation, depletion and amortization, impairment write downs, exploration and dry hole expense|
|FPSO||Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading Vessel|
|FSO||Floating, Storage and Offloading Vessel|
|GJ||109joules or a billion joules|
|GT||109tonnes or a billion tonnes|
|mboe/d||Thousand barrels of oil equivalent per day|
|mcf||Thousand cubic feet|
|mcf/d||Thousand cubic feet per day|
|MW||106watts or a million watts|
|mg/L||Milligram per liter|
|mmboe||Million barrels of oil equivalent|
|mmbtu||Million British thermal units|
|mmcf||Million cubic feet|
|mmcf/d||Million cubic feet per day|
|Moody's||Moody's Investor Service|
|NYMEX||New York Mercantile Exchange|
|NYSE||New York Stock Exchange|
|OECD||Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development|
|OPEC||Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries|
|PSC||Production Sharing Contract|
|ppm||Parts per million|
|S&P||Standard & Poor's Ratings Group|
|tcf||Trillion cubic feet|
|TSX||Toronto Stock Exchange|
|UDHR||Universal Declaration of Human Rights|
|US$||United States dollars|
|WTI||West Texas Intermediate|